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What are the Various Ways of Anal Fistula Treatment?

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An anal fistula is an infected small tunnel that occurs in the internal region of the anus or the external region of the anus. An anal fistula usually occurs when the small glands that are present inside the anus get blocked. As a result, leading to an abscess (collection of pus built within the tissue of the body) and some portion of this abscess will develop into the fistula. Since anal fistula does not heal on its own, treatment is always necessary.  So, here are some of the anal fistula treatments that are available to get rid of anal fistula.

Causes

  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Bleeding
  • Swelling
  • Frequent anal abscesses
  • Irritation
  • Shivering
  • Uncomfortable
  • Tiredness
  • It is necessary for you to immediately consult a doctor if you encounter the symptoms of anal fistula. Because, when one leaves an anal fistula without treatment, it can cause severe complications.

    Prevention

    The following steps will help prevent anal fistula:

    • Do not make an unusual effort or force (straining) while stool passing
    • Try taking regular exercise
    • Make sure to keep your bottom dry and clean
    • Consume foods or supplement containing high fiber

    Treatment of anal fistula

    Non-surgical treatment

    • Fibrin glue: 

    Fibrin glue is the only non-surgical procedure that is available for the treatment of anal fistula. During this procedure, the surgeon injects a glue type into your fistula which results in sealing and healing the fistula. This whole procedure will be performed while you are under anesthesia.

    Surgical treatment

    Most anal fistula always required surgery. Though there are several surgical treatments for anal fistula, your surgeon will choose which surgical procedure to perform. He will choose the procedure depending on the location of your fistula and the type of fistula you has i.e. single type or branch type. Most anal fistula surgery is generally an outpatient procedure that allows you to go home on the same day of the surgery. And all of the surgical procedures involve anesthesia. Surgical treatments for anal fistula are as follows:

    • Seton techniques:    

    A Seton technique is a process that involves treating the fistula passing through some portion of the anal sphincter muscle. During this procedure, the surgeon places a tight seton (a kind of thread) into the fistula. This thread keeps the fistula open for draining the fistula thus, allowing it to heal. 

    • Laser surgery: 

    One of the most effective and safest treatments for anal fistula is laser surgery because it does not require any major incision. Also, most people prefer to go for laser treatment. this procedure involves the use of a special machine that produces a laser beam. These emitted laser beams help seal the fistula. Thus, allowing the fistula to heal.

    • Fistulotomy: 

    Fistulotomy helps in treating fistula passing along the anal sphincter muscle. During this procedure, the surgeon made a cut to the fistula and may leave the wound open or stitches it.

    The main aim of this procedure is to remove the entire fluids and pus from the fistula. This helps in healing the fistula faster. Further, this procedure also helps in closing the abnormal gap that fistulas cause.

    There is a chance of reoccurring abscess or fistula and you have a fever, pain, bleeding, headache, and sleepiness even after the surgery.

    • LIFT (ligation of the intersphincter fistula tract) procedure:  

    This procedure involves treating a fistula that passes along the anal sphincter muscles. During this procedure, the surgeon cut through the skin above the fistula. This helps in moving the sphincter muscle apart. The surgeon will seal both ends and leave them open to let them lay flat.

    • Bioprosthetic plug: 

    In this procedure, the surgeon puts a plug into the fistula. This plug will clog the internal opening of the fistula.

    • Advancement flap procedure: 

    This procedure is also helpful in treating fistula passing along the anal sphincter muscle. During this procedure, the surgeon cut the fistula or removes the fistula from entering the bowel. The surgeon then covers the hole with tissue from the rectum. In this procedure, the success rate is quite low and does not cut the sphincter muscle.

    • Endoscopic ablation: 

    During this procedure, the surgeon put a special tube in the fistula called the endoscope. This endoscope passes electrodes into the fistula that seals the fistula. This whole procedure is performed with the help of a small camera that is attached at the end of the tube. In this procedure, no sphincter muscle is cut.

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